46 Belge Aklin Yapisi

Rules

Mind and Computation1.0 Rules   What does it mean to tell someone exactly what to do?   Sixty years ago no one could give this query a plausible response. Now, however, we have agenerally accepted definition: a set of instructions is exact if some computer can follow them.We have a word, algorithm, which is intended to refer…

Intelligence as Flexible Optimization, Revisited

    As above, let us consider dynamical systems on spaces SxE, where S is the state space of asystem and E is the set of states of its environment. Such dynamical systems representcoevolving systems and environments.   We shall say that such a dynamical system contains an S.-sensitive environment to extent e ifit is S.-sensitive to…

Unpredictability

Intuitively, a system is unpredictable if a lot of information about its past state tends to yield only a little information about its future state. There are many different ways to make this precise. Here we shall consider four different definitions of unpredictability, three of them original.    Let us consider a discrete dynamical system…

Intelligence as Flexible Optimization

  Having just reviewed certain aspects of the psychological perspective on intelligence, it isworth observing how different the engineering perspective is. As one might expect, engineershave a much simpler and much more practical definition of intelligence.   Control theory deals with ways to cause complex machines to yield desired behaviors.Adaptive control theory deals with the design…

Induction, Probability, and Intelligence

    In conclusion, let us now return to the question of intelligence. Assuming that the world isunpredictable and yet possesses the tendency to take habits to a significant degree, let us ask:how should a system act in order to approximately maximize the given "appropriateness"function A? In other words, let us ask the Kantian question: how…

Toward A General Induction Algorithm

 The strengthened Peirce’s principle is only a beginning. It is a basic philosophical assumptionwhich ensures the possibility of intelligence through pattern recognition. All the standardmathematical methods for predicting the future are based on probability theory. In this section I will show that it is indeed possible to combine prediction based on pattern with prediction based…

The Tendency to Take Habits

   The American philosopher Charles S. Peirce founded a vast philosophical system on theprinciple of "the tendency to take habits." By this he meant, roughly, the following:Peirce’s Principle: Unless restrained by the extension of another habit, a habit will tend toextend itself. Here "extend" is taken to refer to both space and time, and "habit"…

Computational Complexity

    Computational complexity theory, also called algorithmic complexity theory, seeks to answertwo different kinds of questions: "How hard is this problem?", and "How effective is thisalgorithm at solving this problem?". A number of difficult issues are involved here, and it is not possible to delve into them deeply without sophisticated mathematics. Here we shall only…