Basic Grammer- Singular and Plural Nouns

Nouns can be singular or plural. When you are talking about one person, animal, place, or thing, use a singular noun.

an airplane    a letter
a bicycle         a map
a boy             a photograph

Plural Nouns

When you are talking about two or more people,animals, places, or things, use plural nouns.
Most nouns are made plural by adding -s at the end.

bird           birds
broom      brooms
camel        camels
desk          desks
doll            dolls
egg            eggs
flower       flowers
fork           forks

Some plural nouns end in -es.

beach     beaches
branch    branches
box           boxes
bush       bushes
church    churches
dish       dishes

Some plural nouns end in -ies.

baby      babies
cherry   cherries
diary      diaries
dictionary dictionaries
fairy       fairies
family    families

What if there is a vowel before the y? In that case, add -s to form the plural.

chimney    chimneys
cowboy      cowboys
day             days
donkey      donkeys
jersey         jerseys
kidney        kidneys

If a noun ends in -f, you often change f to v, and add -es.
With some words that end in -fe, you change f to v, and add -s.

knife    knives
life       lives
wife     wives

If a noun ends in -o, you just add -s to form the plural.

a hippo   hippos
a video   videos

But with  some nouns that end in -o, you add -es to form the plural.

a tomato   tomatoes
a potato    potatoes

Some plural nouns don’t follow the -s rule. They don’t end in -s, -es, -ies or -ves. Instead, the word changes form.

child     children
man     men
ox         oxen

Some plural nouns are the same as the singular noun.

bison   bison
deer     deer

Some nouns are always plural.

pants   scissors
pajamas   sneakers
shorts    slippers

Kaynak: Basic English Grammer Book1
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